रविवार, 29 अप्रैल 2018

जीवन संघर्ष


जीवन संघर्ष

रबीन्द्र नारायण मिश्र



(मिथिला मिहिर, पटना मे २५ जुलाइ १९८२क प्रकाशित)



(१)

सूर्य जे प्रातः उगल से विदा छल,

चिड़ै चुनमुन उतरि कऽ आकाशसँ,

निश्चिंत भावे गवै  छल-

"जे करी विश्राम ,दिन अवशेषपर अछि।"

(२)

मुदा ओ हाथसँ पाथर फोड़ै छल,

भोरेसँ संघर्षरत जीविका हित,

सोनितक विक्री करै छल,

कुहड़ितहुँ साँझो पड़ल ,धरि ओतहि छल।

(३)

पेट,अँतरी,पीठमे अंतर खतम छल,

दाँत झड़ि कए मुँहकेँ खधिआ केने छल,

आँखिमे धसना धसल छल,आहार बिनु,

हाड़ोक हड्डी गलि रहल छल।

(४)

से कहि रहल छल, बातमे पीड़ा भरल छल,

अतिशय तृषित मनदग्ध,देहक दुर्गति छल,

जे हमर जीवन कुटिल ओ क्लिष्ट केहन,

यद्यपि करी श्रम अनवरत, धरि हाल एहन

(५)

हे मनुज़ ! तोँ उठह, आबो आँखि खोलह,

देखह ने कोनो भेद अछि,प्रकृतिक कोनो आयाममे,

तद्यपि सुखक मारिचिकामे,विसरि जे तोँ मनुक्ख छह,

अपने सोनित मोहवश गट-गट पीवै छह।




गुरुवार, 26 अप्रैल 2018

संपत्ति हस्तांतरण


संपत्ति हस्तांतरण

संपत्ति हस्तांतरण अधिनियम, 1882  १ जुलाइ १८८२सँ लागू भेल। संपत्ति हस्तांतरण अधिनियम स्वैच्छिक हस्तांतरण - बिक्री, बन्हक(भरना), उपहार, अदला- बदली, चार्ज पर लागू होइत अछि । विरासात,दिवालिआपन,जव्ती,न्यायलयक आदेशक अनुपालन हेतु,,वा इक्षा पत्र द्वारा कानूनक अनुपालनक हेतु कएल गेल संपत्तिक हस्तान्तरणपर  संपत्ति हस्तांतरण अधिनियम लागू नहि होइत अछि।
क्यो अपन संपत्ति किएक बेचैत अछि? पैसाक प्रयोजन भेला पर-जगजाहिर जबाब अछि। बेचएबलाकेँ उचित पैसा भेटि जाइक आओर किननाहरकेँ सही सलामत संपत्ति जेना जमीन,मकान,फ्लैट,भेटिजाइक जाहिपर किननाहर निर्वाध रूपसँ  मालिकाना हक प्राप्त कए सकए,ओकर स्वेक्षा एवम् कानून सम्मत तरीकासँ ओकर ऊपभोग कए सकए। एहन नहि होइक जे कीननाहर सभटा पैसा दए दैक मुदा कीनल गेल संपत्तिपर क्यो आन अपन हक लए ठाढ भए जाइक,किंबा बलपूर्बक ओहि संपत्तिपर कव्जा बनौने रहए। कएबेर एहनो होइत अछि जे एकहिटा संपत्ति कैगोटाक हाथे बेचि देल गेल हो किंवा ओहि संपत्तिपर बैंक वा कोनो आओर व्यक्तिक कर्जा होइक आओर ओहि तरे ओ संपत्ति बन्हक पड़ल हो। ताहि हेतु ई आवश्यक अछि जे कोनो संपत्ति कीनबासँ पूर्व क्रेता उचित पुछ-ताछ  कए सुनिश्चित कए लेथि जे ओहि संपत्तिपर कोनो लफड़ा तँ नहि अछि।
 संपत्तिक हस्तान्तरणक समय मूलतः निम्नलिखित बातक ध्यान राखब जरूरी थिकः
१.बेचनाहरकेँ ओहि संपत्तिपर पूर्ण कानूनी अधिकार हेबाक चाही,ताहि हेतु ओकरासँ संपत्तिक मूल दस्ताबेजक मांग जरूर करबाक चाही,मात्र फोटोकाँपी देखिकए सौदा नहि तय कए लेबाक चाही।

२.सब-रजिष्ट्रारक कार्यालयसँ एहि बातक पक्का जानकारी लेबाक चाही जे ओ संपत्ति भरना/बन्हकतँ नहि अछि।

३.सब-रजिष्ट्रारक कार्यालयसँ एहि बातक एहि बातक जानकारी सेहो लेबाक चाही जे ओ संपत्ति कहीं पहिने ककरो हाथे बेचि देल गेल तँ नहि अछि?

४.एहि बातक जानकारी लेबाक चाही जे बेचनाहर ओहि संपत्तिकेँ कतएसँ आ केना प्राप्त केलक,ताहि दस्ताबेजकेँ देखि कए सुनिश्चित करबाक चाही जे बेचनाहर सही आदमीसँ ओ संपत्ति कीनने अछि,माने जे जकरासँ ओ ओहि संपत्तिकेँ कीनलक तकर ओकरा बेचबाक पूर्ण अधिकार रहैक कि नहि,अन्यथा काल्हि भेने क्यो सामने आबि  कए कहि सकैत अछि जे ओहि संपत्तिमे हमरो हिस्सा छल,तकरा क्यो आन कोना बेचि देलक? एहन नहि हो जे पैसा खर्चो केलाक बाद लफड़ा भए जाए।
कोनो संपत्ति कीनबासँ पहिने की करबाक चाही?
१.पहिने ई पता करी जे ओ संपत्ति बेचनहारकेँ कतएसँ प्राप्त भेल? की ओ ओकरा कानून एवम् दस्ताबेजक अनुसार अधिकार प्राप्त व्यक्तिसँ कीनने अछि? ताहि हेतु विक्रयक अनुवंधक बजाप्ता निवंधन(सेल डीडक रजिष्ट्रेसन) भेल अछि कि नहि?तकर प्रमाणस्वरूप दस्ताबेज देखल जाए।

२. बेचनहारक ओहि संपत्तिपर कव्जा अछि के नहि ?

३.ओहि संपत्तिकेँ बन्हक राखि कर्ज तँ नहि लेल गेल अछि,जँ लेल गेल अछि तँ कर्जक आपसी भेल कि नहि,

४.संपत्तिक उपर कोनो टैक्स बाँकी तँ नहि अछि?

५.जौँ संपत्ति स्वअर्जित नहि अछि तँ ओहि मे आनो लोकक हिस्सा छैक कि बेचनहार एसगरे ओकर हकदार अछि,

६.संपत्तिक दाखिल खारिज बेचनिहारक नामे अछि कि नहि,

७.संपत्तिक वास्तविक नापीक अनुसार ओकर रकबा दस्तावेजमे देल गेल विवरणसँ मेल खाइत अछि कि नहि?
संपत्ति बेचनिहारक ओहि संपत्तिपर अधिकार सुनिश्चित कएलेलाक बाद कीननाहर  एवम् बेचनिहार आपसमे एकटा सहमति पत्र पर हस्ताक्षर करताह । ओहिमे क्रय विक्रयक सभटा शर्त लिखल जाएत,जेना संपत्तिक मूल्य,भूगतानक शर्त। उचित मूल्यक स्टांप पत्रपर सहमति पत्र पर बेचनाहर किननाहरक अतिरिक्त दूटा गवाहक हस्ताक्षर होएब जरूरी थिक।
कोनो संपत्तिक हस्तान्तरण हेतु निवंधनसँ पूर्व ओहि राज्यमे लागू कानूनक तहत सटांप पेपर लेब आवश्यक थिक। आइ -काल्हि स्टांप पेपर आनलाइन भेटि जाइत अछि। ताहि हेतु आनलाइन भूगतान कए ओकर जानकारी आनलाइन स्टांप पेपर विक्रेताकेँ देब जरूरी थिक। पेमेंटक सूचना प्राप्त होइते ओहि सुविधा केन्द्र द्वारा स्टांप पेपरकेँ आनलाइन निकालि लेल जाइत अछि। एहि तरहे आशानीसँ भारी मूल्यक स्टांप पेपरकेँ प्राप्त कएल जा सकैत अछि।
स्टांप ड्युटीक गणना हेतु बेचल जा रहल संपत्तिक सर्किल रेटक आधार पर कएल जाइत अछि। जौँ जमीनपर मकान सेहो बनल अछि तँ ओकर अलग-अलग गणना कएल जाइत अछि। विक्रय मूल्य, सरकारी सर्किल रेटदुनूमे जे ज्यादा होएत ताहि हिसाबसँ स्टांप ड्युटी लागत। तकर अलाबा निवंधन शुल्क सेहो अलगसँ देबए पड़ैत अछि। जौं सर्किल रेटक हिसाबसँ उचित स्टांप ड्युटी नहि देल जाइत अछि तँ निवंधन खारिज भए सकैत अछि।
मुख्तारनामा (power of attorney) :
मुख्तारनामा/वकालतनामा(पावर आफ अटर्नी)क आधारपर कएल गेल संपत्तिक हस्तानान्तरण :
माननीय उच्चतम न्यायलय सूरज लैम्प एवम् इन्डस्ट्रीज बनाम हरियाणा सरकार एवम् अन्यक मामलामे निर्णय देलक अछि जे मुख्तारनामा(पावर आफ अटर्नी)क आधारपर संप्त्तिक हस्तानान्तरण गैरकानूनी थिक। मुख्तारनामा(पावर आफ अटर्नी) मूलतः निकट संवंधी जेना पिता,पुत्र,पत्नी वा खास मित्रक पक्षमे एहि हेतु कएल जा सकैत हछिजे संपत्तिक मालिक कोनो खास वजहसँ ओहि संपत्तिक क्रय विक्रयक निवंधनमे उपस्थित नहि भए सकैत अछि,(जेना कि क्यो विदेशमे हो )
(R.V. Raveendran, A.K. Patnaik, H.L. Gokhale IN THE SUPREME COURT OF INDIA CIVIL  APPELLATE JURISDICTION SPECIAL LEAVE PETITION (C) NO.13917 OF 2009)
निवंधनक समय कीननाहर, बेचनाहरक अलाबा दूटा गवाहक उपस्थिति जरूरी अछि। ओहि गबाहक हस्ताक्षर कबाला(सेल डीड) पर जरूरी थिक।संपत्तिक क्रय विक्रयक निवंधनक समयमे कोनो कारणसँ बेचनिहार किंवा कीननाहर स्वयं उपस्थित नहि भए सकैत अछि तँ कोनो संवंधी वा मित्रकेँ उचित मुख्तारनामा (power of attorney) दए ई काज करावोल जा सकैत अछि।
जौं विक्रय मूल्य पचास लाखसँ बेसी अछि तँ कीननाहरक ई कर्तव्य अछि जे विक्रय मूल्यक एक प्रतिशत काटि कए उचित चालान प्रपत्र द्वारा आयकर विभागमे  आनलाइन वा बैकमे जमा कए देथि अन्यथा ओ आयकर विभागक चपेटमौ  आबि सकैत छथि।एहि तरहेँ काटल गेल टाका आयकर विभाग द्वारा आयकर रिटर्न भरलापर कुल देय  आयकरमे मिन्हा कए देल जाइत अछि।
सेल डीडक मसौदा :
सेल डीडक मसौदा तैयार करबामे प्रचुर सावधानी राखब जरूरी थिक।ओहिमे संपत्तिक चौहद्दी,रकबा,खाता नंबर,खेसरा नंबर,सहित ओकर पूर्बक मालिकक वर्णन हेबाक चाही। विक्रयमूल्य सहित वेचनिहार एवम् कीननाहरक विवरण हेबाक चाही। बेचनिहार द्वारा स्पष्ट घोषणा हेबाक चाही जे ओ ओहि संपत्तिक पूर्ण मालिक अछि,जे ओहि पर कोनो आन व्यक्तिक अधिकार नहि अछि,जे कोनो तरहक कानूनी विवाद ओहि संपत्तिपर नहि अछि,जे ओ संपत्तिपर कोनो कर्ज नहि बाँकी अछि,आदि,आदि। सेलडीडमे इहो लिखल जेबाक चाही जे ओ संपत्ति बेचनिहारक स्वअर्जित समपत्ति अछि,जौँ से नहि अछि आओर ओ संपत्ति संयुक्त परिवारक पुसतैनी संपत्तिक हिस्सा अछि तखन ओकरा दियादी बटबाराक संगे ई प्रमाण देबाक चाही जे ओ संपत्ति ओकरे हिस्साक अछि आओर ओहिपर कोनो आन पटिदारक हक नहि छैक। जौँ ओहिमे आनो पटिदारक हिस्सा सामिल छैक,तखन ओहि संपत्तिक विक्रय पत्र(सेल डीड)पर सभ पटिदारक दस्तखत जरूरी अछि आन्यथा भविष्यमे ओहिपर कानूनी झंझटि भए सकैत अछि। सेलडीड(विक्रय पत्र)क निवंधनक बाद कीननाहर द्वारा बेचनिहारकेँ विक्रय मूल्यक पूरा भूगतानक बादे सेलडीड(विक्रय पत्र) कीननाहरकेँ देल जाइत अछि।
जमीन -मकान क क्रय विक्रय सामान्यतः कमे काल होइत अछि जाहिमे जीवन भरिक कमाओल धन लागि जाइत अछि। तेँ जरूरी अछि जे ई काज पूर्ण सावधानीक संगे कएल जाए। कागज-पत्तर ठीकसँ बनाओल जाए आ कीनल संपत्तिक कव्जा ठीकसँ लेल जाए जाहिसँ बादमे कोनो प्रकारक झंझटिमे नहि पड़ी।












रविवार, 22 अप्रैल 2018

Why do we worry at all?


Why do we worry at all?

Do we gain anything by worrying? The answer is big ‘NO’. Then why do we worry at all? The answer is: We cannot live without worrying.

Worry is a universal problem. It is not confined to the poor or have nots. The rich and powerful persons are seen worrying much more because they have many avenues for attachment. They have greater chance of losing. Therefore, they remain busy in finding ways and means to protect their wealth, position and status in the society. Fear of losing something already acquired, is not confined to high and mighty.

Worry is a negative instinct generated mainly out of fear. We start worrying as soon as we come across a situation beyond our control. We worry a lot when we have scarcity. We also start worrying when we have enough.

 I remember an incident where a gardener committed suicide because he was superseded by his junior for promotion to the post of Head gardener. He could not tolerate his junior becoming his boss. Both of them were men of low status.  Nevertheless, he was shocked to see his junior getting promoted. Inability to adjust with the changes in life often results in disappointments and may cause irreparable damage to our mental and physical health.

We used to worry a lot about our school examinations during childhood. Now, we think, it was not required. What is the point of the school going children worrying about their performance so much so that  some of them even commit suicide because of poor performance? But that is not the end of it. When we grow young, we keep worrying about our admission to good professional college. After sometime, we keep worrying about placement. When we get placement, then we invent new problems so that this chain remains intact.

Many of us aspire to become rich so that we can lead a happy and comfortable life. We struggle a lot to acquire wealth and power, position in our life. There are many people who already have enough wealth. They even succeeded in acquiring high position. Nevertheless, they are not free from worries. They too have to face struggle in day to day life. The desire to immortalize the things already acquired creates many problems. We keep on making frantic efforts so that we do not lose our wealth, status and everything that we have. But things keep changing. We lose control over future developments and end leaving everything behind at the time of departing from the world. Even worries of life are left out.

We have air-conditioned rooms, modern gadgets, easy chairs and comfortable bedsheets. Nevertheless, we remain craving for sleep. We spend sleepless nights despite taking sleeping pills. On the other hand, a large number of labourer’s sleep on the streets without any hitch. They work hard throughout the day and earn hardly enough to make both ends meet. After having their meals, they go to sleep on the road side and sleep within minutes despite so much noise around. Why are they able to have such a sound sleep? Why the rich and the privileged keep craving for it?? The answer is very simple. Most of them do not have peace of mind because of  endless craving for more and more. But the poor labourers are working hard. They sleep fearlessly by the side of the road. It is another thing that drunk drivers often crush them and some of them have accidental death while sleeping on the road.

Many people quarrel on Holidays. This happens because their minds are unoccupied. Empty mind is devils workshop. Small family issues get mixed with the mental tension buried in the inner mind. The remedy is to keep oneself constructively occupied during vacations. This not only gives an opportunity to unwind but also saves us from avoidable conflict with the family and friends.

We should share our problems/difficulties with our friends. This helps a lot in removing mental burden. It is quite possible, that they would have faced similar problem. That way we can benefit from their personal experience. If the problem being faced is technical in nature, such as a legal dispute or sending reply to a notice received from the Income Tax Department, the remedy is to consult the experts of that field immediately instead of keeping the matter pending.

Modern gadgets like mobile phone, Sky TV, Internet, Facebook etc have added to our woes. It brings bad and good news from all over the world. We get associated with so many unwanted incidents. No doubt they have brought the world closer, making the dream of a global village close to a reality but it has damaged harmony within our own self. We are too much concerned about what others think about me. We have stopped self-introspection. This results in increased incidence of depression. Young people are uploading their own suicide video on the social media? What a disappointing situation this is? We are destroying our own existence?

Worry is not confined to the poor. The rich people have more to worry. They keep worrying about possible loss in the business or someone else getting more profit. What is the remedy? Should we stop worrying. Yes, but how. That is the main problem. Everybody wants to live peacefully and to enjoy the benefits of his hard work. But many persons are not lucky enough to be able to do that. Many of us develop disease and have to spend a lot of time and money over medical treatment. We keep earning even at the cost of health and then spend money so earned on saving life!

A slight dose of worry can work like medicine. For example, if a student worries about his examination, he may become more attentive and start preparing for his examination and may do better in his examination and earn respectability among his fellow students. On the other hand, if worries dominate his mind, he may lose creativity. Young students who could not make it in the entrance examinations for admission to various courses get frustrated and go even to the extent of taking once own life. Can there be more disappointing development than this? Every year we hear the news of suicide from Kota in Rajasthan where many young girls and boys commit suicide because they fail to get admission into IIT? Why such things happen? Often guardians too are responsible for such things. The students who do not even have interest in Science subjects are forced to study them so that they could compete with their neighbour’s son or daughters. This mad race need to end. There is nothing in this world which could justify taking once own life. Life is a wonderful gift from God.It must be protected!

Most of the time we keep postponing decisions. This often leads to avoidable mental tension. If we care to take timely decision after careful considerations, it is quite possible that we would cross the barriers. Merely thinking about the past or the future does not lead anywhere. If you see the life history of great men, you would find one thing common in most of them and that is their ability to act in time. Those who keep doubting are ultimately finished. That is why Lord Krishna said in the Gita” Sansayaatma vinasyati”.

Life needs adjustment. Persons who adjust with the situation and accept the unavoidable have little to worry. But many people keep thinking about the past. They are reluctant to accept new developments which results in constant struggle within.

Our inability to accept the unavoidable thing often leads to tension in our lives. We can avoid tension and remain free from worries, if we stop thinking over things which are already over or which are beyond our means,”gata sun gatanshchiab nanu shochanti panditah”.Wise people do not think over the past or things which are yet to happen.

We are destined to live and go. Thousands of persons have come and gone. The problems of life have ever continued. In a way, these are essential requirements for sustenance of life. Let us accept the life as it unfolds and rest in peace.

All my life, I hoped and dreamed,
to become a superstar, and not have to worry,
about all of the problems, and all of the hardships,
that the world would bring,

I wouldn't have to worry, about being poor,
or what to wear, or what money we even had, to spend here or there,
Id have a life no worries, no dreams that didn't come true,
id have everything, but for now I'm just happy with what i have,
and I'm happy that I have you.

(No Worries - Poem by Brandie .....)











रविवार, 15 अप्रैल 2018

गिरफ्तारी ओ जमानत (Arrest and Bail)

गिरफ्तारी ओ जमानत  (Arrest and Bail)

कोनो-ने-कोनो झंझटिमे नहिओ चाहैत कए बेर लोक फँसि जाइत अछि। केबेर निर्दोष लोकक खिलाफ झूठ-फूसके मामला बना देल जाइत अछि जाहिमे पुलिसके घाल-मेल सेहो भए जाइक से भारी बात नहि। टेलेविजन केँ गाम-गाम पसरि गेलासँ अपराधक नव-नव स्वरूप गामो-घरमे  फैलि रहल अछि। कैटा कानूनो एहन भए गेल अछि जे  बिना गलतिओकेँ कैबेर लोक जहलधरि पहुँचि जाइत छथि एहन परिस्थितिमे लोकके जहल  ओ जमानतसँ संवंधित कानूनक जानकारी बहुत आवश्यक भए गेल अछि जाहिसँ व्यर्थक फसादसँ बचि सकथि आ जरूरी भेलापर समाधान कए अपन जीवन ओ इज्जतिक रक्षा करथि।
कैटा कनून एहन हछि जाहिमे पुलिस मामला दाखिल होइते अभियुक्तकेँ गिरफ्तार कए सकैत अछि। उदाहरणस्वरूप भारतीय दणड संहिताक धारा ४९८(ए)क तहत कएलगेल मोकदमामे अभियुक्तक हालत बहुत पातर भए जाइत छल।ओकरा सभसँ पहिने पुलिस गिरफ्तार करैत छल,तखन आर किछु। बहुत रास मामलामे देखल गेल जे कएल गेल सिकाइत झूट छल,कोर्टमे साबूतक आधारपर साबित नहि भेल ,अभियुक्त बरी भए गेल,मुदा ताबति ओकर सभ दशा भए जाइत छल,ओकर इज्जति क मटियामेट भए जाइत छल। ऊच्चतम न्यायलय एहिबातक संज्ञान लैति दिशा-निर्देश जारी कए सुनिश्चित करबाक प्रयास केलक जे निर्दोश लोकके एहन मामलामे वेबजह गिरफ्तारी नहि होइक।
संविधानक धारा २२ क अनुसार पुलिस द्वारा गिरफ्तार कएल गेल व्यक्तिकेँ अधिकार अछि जे ओ गिरफ्तारीक कारण जानए,जौँ गिरफ्तारी वारंटक आधारपर भेल अछि तँ ओकरा वारंट देखाओल जाए,वकील वा निकट संवंधीकेँ संपर्क कए सकए। ओकरा गिरफ्तारीक चौवीस घंटाक भीतर मजिष्ट्रेटक सम्मुख उपस्थित करब जरुरी थिक। ओकरा इहो बताएब जरुरी तिक जे ओ जमानतपर छोड़ल जा सकैत छैक कि नहि।
गिरफ्तार कएलगेल व्यक्तिकेँ हथकड़ी लगाएब:
ऊच्चतम न्यायलयक दिशा निर्देशक अनुसार गिरफ्तार कएलगेल व्यक्तिकेँ हथकड़ी लगाबएसँ बचबाक चाही,कारण एहन व्यक्ति सजाआफ्ता नहि होइत छथि। हथकड़ीक प्रयोग अपवादिक परिस्थितिमे तखने कएल जाए जखन कि अभियुक्त हिंसक हो,पुलिसक गिरफ्तसँ भागि जेबाक संभावना होइक,किंवा आत्महत्यापर ऊतारु हो।
सीआरपीसीक धारा ७४क अधीन पुलिस अभियुक्तकेँ गिरफ्तार करबाक हेतु घरमे घुसिकए ओकरा पकड़ि सकैतअछि,ताहिलेल जरुरी भेलापर घरक खिड़कीकेँ तोड़ि सकैत अछि।
कोनो व्यक्तिकेँ गिरफ्तार केलाकवादे ओकर  स्च कएल जा सकैत अछि,पहिने नहि।जौँ गिरफ्तार कएल गेल व्यक्ति महिला छथि तखन महिले पुलिस ई काज कए सकैत अछि।
महिलाक गिरफ्तारी हेतु उच्चतम न्यायलय द्वारा जारी कएल गेल दिशानिर्देश:
उच्चतम न्यायलय द्वारा जारी कएलगेल मार्गदर्शनक अनुसार सामान्यतः कोनो महिलाकेँ साँझक बाद आ भोर हेबासँ पहिने गिरफ्तार नहि कएल जाएत। जौं ततबे आवश्यक भए जाइक आ रातियेमे महिलाक गिरफ्तारी जरूरी होइक,भोरधरि रुकब कानूनक अनुपालन हेतु दिक्कति भए जेबाक संभावना प्रवल होइक,तखन मजिष्ट्रेटक पूर्व अनुमति लए एवम् महिला पुलिस द्वारा ई काज कएल जाएत। गिरफ्तारीक बाद जौं महिलाकेँ  सर्च करब जरूरी होइक तखन ई काज महिला पुलिस द्वारा कराओल जेबाक चाही।पुलिस हाजतिमे महिलाकेँ अलग राखबाक चाहीजौँ महिलाक हेतु अलग हाजति नहि होइक तखन ओकरा अलग कोठरीमे राखल जेबाक चाही।
विना वारंटकेँ गिरफ्तारीः
आपराधिक प्रक्रिया संहिता 1 9 73 क धारा 41  क अनुसार पुलिस कोनो व्यक्तिकेँ निम्नलिखित परिस्थितिमे बिना वारंटकेँ गिरफ्तार कए सकैत अछि:
 (१) जखन ओ कोनो संज्ञेय अपराध केने हो,
(२) कोनो पुलिस अधिकारीकेँ कर्तव्य निर्वहनमे व्यवधान ठाढ़ केने होइक,
(३) ओकर घरसँ कोनो चोरीक माल पकड़ल गेल होइक,
(४) कानूनी हिरासतसँ मटिआ रहल हो,
(५) सेना, वायु सेना, जलसेनासँ भागि आएल हो,
(६) जौँ ओकरा अपराधी घोषित कएल गेल हो,
(७) जौँ ओ अभ्यस्त अपराधी अछि,
(८) जौँ ओकरापर संज्ञेय अपराध करबाक शक छैक,
(९) जौँ न्यायलय द्वारा छोड़ल गेल अपराधी न्यायलयक शर्तक अनुपालन नहि करैत अछि,
कैटा आओर एहन कानूनसभ अछि जाहि सिकाइत भेलापर पुलिसकेँ अभियुक्तकेँ गिरफ्तार करबाक अजस्त्र अधिकार भए जाइत अछि।


संज्ञेय अपराध की थिक?
संज्ञेय अपराधमे पुलिस बिना कोर्ट आदेशकेँ अभियुक्तकेँ गिरफ्तार कए सकैत अछि। हत्या,वलात्कार,चोरी,राष्ट्रद्रोह,सन अपराधक मामला एहि श्रेणीमे अबैत अछि।
असंज्ञेय अपराध की थिक?
असंज्ञेय अपराध क मामलामे कोर्टक आदेश भेलाक बादे ककरो गिरफ्तार कएल जा सकैत अछि।
जौँ अभियुक्त पुलिसक गिरफ्तसँ भागवाक प्रयास करैत अछि,तँ ओकरा पुलिस उपयुक्त वल प्रयोग कए पकड़ि सकैत अछि,परंतु वलक अनावश्यक प्रयोगसँ पुलिसकेँ बचबाक चाही। मुदा आवश्यक भेलापर पुलिस जानोलए सकैत अछि,वशर्ते ओकर अपराध मृत्युदंड देबए जोगर होइक।
अग्रिम जमानत:
अग्रिम जमानतदेबाक अधिकार उच्च न्यायलय वा सेशन कोर्टकेँ अछि। अग्रिम जमानत हेतु आवेदन निचला कोर्टमे नहि कएल जा सकैत अछि। अग्रिम जमानत देबाकाल न्यायलय सुनिश्चित करैत अछि जे आवेदक मामलाक विवेचनामे वांछित सहयोग करताह,देश छोड़ि बाहर नहि चलि जेताह,कोनो गवाह वा सबूतकेँ प्रभावित नहि करताह। आवेदककेँ जौँ आशंका होइक जे ओकरा कोनो मामलामे फँसाकए गिरफ्तार कएल जा सकैत अछितँ ओ उचित न्यायालयकेँ अग्रिम जमानत हेतु आवेदन कए सकैत छथि।
अग्रिम जमानत ताबते धरिक हेतु देल जेबाक चाही जाधरि चालान कोर्टमे प्रषित नहि कएल गेल अछि,तकर बाद अभियुक्तकेँ नियमित जमानत हेतु संवंधित न्यायलयमे आवेदन देबाक चाही(सजलुद्दीन अब्दुल समद शेख बनाम राज्य महाराष्ट्र)
न्यायक तकाजा थिक जे अग्रिम जमानत देबासँ पूर्व विरोधी पक्षकेँ न्यायलय नोटिस जारी करए जाहिसँ अभियुक्त गलत जानकारि दए किंवा वांछित जानकारीकेँ दबाकए अग्रिम जमानत नहि लए सकए(बालचंद जैन बनाम मध्य प्रदेश )
जमानती वारंट:
गिरफ्तारीक वारंट कोनो कोर्टक पीठासीन अधिकारी द्वारा लिखित रूपमे जारी कएल जाइत अछि। ओहिमे स्पष्ट रूपसँ ई लिखल हेबाक चाही जे कानूनकक कोन धाराक अनुसार ओकर गिरफ्तारीक वारंट जारी कएल गेल अछि,ओकरा कहिआ आ कखन ओहि कोर्टमे  हाजिर हेबाक छैक। ओहि आदेशमे इहो लिखल रहत जे ओकरा उचित जमानात देला पर एहि शर्त संग गिरफ्तारीसँ छूट देल जाइत अछि जे ओ नियत दिन/नियत समय पर कोर्टमे हाजिर भए जाएत,ताहि हेतु एकटा निश्चित रकमक बौंड सेहो ओकरा  देबए पड़ैत अछि,एकाधिक व्यक्तिकक जमानात सेहो दबए पड़ि सकैत अछि।
गैर जमानती वारंट:
गैर जमानती वारंटमे पुलिस अभियुक्तकेँ गिरफ्तार कए संवंधित कोर्टमे हाजिर करैत अछि,तकर बादे ओकर जमानत पर छोड़वाक आवेदनपर कोर्ट विचार करत।कोनो मामलामे जमानत पर अभियुक्तकेँ रिहा करबासँ पूर्व कोर्टकेँ मामलाक गंभीर छानबीन कएल जाइत अछि,कोर्ट ई सुनिश्चित करए चाहैत अछि जे जमानतपर छोड़ि देलाक बाद ओ न्यायिक प्रकृयाकेँ प्रभावित नहि करए,जरुरत भरि मामलाक अनुसंधानमे सहयोग करए,गवाहसभकेँ तोड़बाक प्रयास नहि करए। संगहि ओकर इतिहास एवम् चरित्रक विषयमे सेहो जानकारी लेबाक प्रयोजन होइत अछि जाहिसँ बाहर गेलाकबाद ओ समाजक हेतु समस्या नहि भए जाए।
सेशन कोर्ट वा उच्च न्यायालयसँ जमानत:
जौँ अभियुक्त एहन अपराध केलक अछि जाहि मे मृत्युदंड वा आजन्म कारावासक प्रावधान थिक, तखन ओकरा जमानत सेशन कोर्ट वा उच्च न्यायालयसँ भेटत,ताहिसँ निचला कोर्टसँ नहि।
न्यायलयकेँ जमानत देबाक समय बहुत सावधानीपूर्वक विचार करबाक प्रयोजन अछि कारण अपराध सिद्ध होयबासँ पूर्वे ककरो जहलमे सड़ादेब मानवीय अधिकारक सरासर उल्लंघन थिक मुदा संगहि समाजके व्यापकहितकेँ ध्यान राखब सेहो जरूरी अछि ,जे ओ व्यक्ति बाहर आबिकए एहन ने कए देथि जे कोनो आन व्यक्तिक सम्मान ओ जीवन पर संकट उत्पन्न भए जाइक।
उपसंहार
संविधानक अनुक्षेद २१ एवम २२ क तहत प्राप्त मौलिक अधिकारक रक्षाक हेतु आवश्यक अछि जे बेबजह ककरो स्वतंत्रता पर आघात नहि होइक,लोक निर्वाध अपन जीवनक रक्षा कए सकए। गिरफ्तारी निश्चय एहि संवैधानिक अधिकारकेँ सद्यः सीमिते नहि करैत अछि अपितु ग्रहण लगा दैत अछि। मुदा ककरो स्वतंत्रता एहि हद धरि नहि भए सकैत अछि जे कोनो निर्दोष आदमीक जिनाइ कठिन कए दैक,किंबा कोनो अपराधी बेटछुट्ट भेल घुमैत रहए। अस्तु, पुलिस एवम् न्यायालयकेँ एकटा संतुलित रुखि राखि प्रत्येक मामलामे नीर- क्षीर विवेक रखैत काज करक चाही जाहिसँ कोनो निर्दोष व्यक्तिकेँ फिरसान नहि होबए पड़ैक आ दोषी खुल्ला नहि घुमैत रहए।निश्चय  ई संतुलन बनाएव एकटा कठिन काज थिक मुदा समस्त कानून ओ न्यायालय एहि प्रयासमे लागल रहैत अछि।

गुरुवार, 12 अप्रैल 2018

Life is not a race!


Life is not a race!

Once Chinese philosopher Chuaang-Ju was catching fish near a river bank. A messenger of the king appeared suddenly and told him about the king`s desire to appoint him as the Prime Minister. Chuaang told the messenger:” I have heard that the king has a shield of a divine tortoise in his museum. Suppose the tortoise becomes alive. Would it in that case like to reside in the museum or would prefer to return to the morass where he was originally born? The representative replied: “He would have liked to return to the morass.” Chuaang-Ju replied: “I too would like the same. Men loose peace of mind after getting power. Sometimes they even lose their lives. “Please tell the king that I too would like to return to the morass”. Happiness is never achieved by running after money and power.

Most of the problems we confront in our day to day life are our own creation. How? Because we are mostly busy in comparing ourselves with others. He has a bigger house. His children are much well placed. His company is making lot of profits. I am not progressing like someone else. My position is superior to others. All these comparisons with others create lot of pressure in our mind. Instead of keeping our minds engaged in such negativities, we can show mercy to ourselves by engaging constructively. It does not mean that we should not try to progress and remain satisfied with our achievements but we should avoid comparison with the achievements of others.

Everybody has its own achievements. Problem arises when we start comparing ourselves with others. Someone is in politics for thirty years. Naturally, he would have grown enough in his own line and became MP, MLA or even Minister. Someone else is in the Government job. He would grow in his own cadre and according to his own seniority. Like that. At the end of the day, you cannot and should not say that you could not rise like your neighbour, or relative or friend for that matter. Actually speaking, we can relish life much better by developing an art of oneness and a sense of integration with the aspirations and achievements of others. If we remain confined to our own self and keep envying with others, we can never live a happy and satisfied life.

Life is not a race. We have come here to live our own lives in our own style and according to our nature. Of course, we cannot exercise our right to live independently without any full stop. There has to be limitations so that there are opportunities for others to live happily. Life is also not meant to mint money. Had it been so, God would have made us adult right way so that we start earning immediately after we come to this world. But there is childhood, then at the end the old age. In between we become young, then middle aged and so on. Thus, requirements of body and mind keep changing. Unfortunately, we sometimes fail to synchronize ourselves with this change. This results in avoidable disappointments.

One of the greatest problem being faced by humanity these days, is trust deficit. We are unable to confide in even with our nears and dears. We cannot share our mental burden with our neighbourhood. We do not mix with our co-workers. The result is- increased number of people are committing suicide. The number of persons with depression is growing tremendously.

Most of the people commit suicide due to self-created isolation. The keep themselves confined. The result is that they are often overpowered by the negativities. It is not possible nor desirable to share and discuss once everything with everybody but the issues which are making our lives miserable need to be shared with the people whom we trust. But the problem is you cannot create trustworthy friendship overnight.

I remember one incident when a friend of mine was immensely upset over some office problem. Luckily, I met with him during morning walk in Lodhi Garden. He did not look normal. He was not answering my queries properly. I understood, all was not well with him. I tried to involve him in talk. He opened up gradually and told me that he was intending to commit suicide because of great injustice done to him by the Department in denying him the promotion which was due. I had a lengthy discussion. I tried to dissuade him from worrying too much about things which were not in our control. He seemed better. Next day he met me again and thanked a lot for healthy discussion but for which he could have gone to any extent ,even  committing suicide. The purpose of narrating this incident here is to make the reader aware about the importance of sharing things with nears and dears.

Many people remain worrying throughout. There could not by anything worse than this. I have myself been a great sufferer due to this habit. Actually, worry does not bring any solution rather it maximizes the problems by creating new problems mainly because we often hurt people, may be unwillingly in such state of mind.

Worry keeps you mentally involved. You lose lot of mental energy in meaningless things. That time and energy could have been better utilized in finding new friends, reading new books or gossiping with friends of positive thinking which could have brought out new light in our lives. If we are in trouble, the answer is not to get engrossed in it rather to remain peaceful and concentrate upon the possible solutions.

We all have to struggle throughout the day to earn livelihood. At the end of the day we come back to our home. Many times, there is a jam on the road. We have to wait for hours to reach our destination. By the time we reach our house, we are tired. We definitely need something to unwind ourselves. It can be a hot cup of tea brought by your wife or smiling children or a   smiling aged parent who kept waiting for hours for their children to return.

Sometimes we get irritated even with the slightest inconvenience. We start shouting at others. He also reacts accordingly. Things get out of hand soon. Many people suffer heavily in such situations. The question is: “why such things happen”? Why people are so much irritated even at small happenings in day to life?

The newspapers are flooded with the reports of violence caused without much justification. Someone bringing his scooter in front of a running car, gets violent for nothing. He strikes against the glass and breaks open it. The driver inside the car also speaks something. Both get out of control and start beating each other with the result that both are seriously injured and one of them dies on way to the hospital. Such incidents are daily reported in the newspapers/televisions. But the question is: why such things are happening? Can we stop such violent behaviour?

Over expectations from others is also often cause of tension. Besides mutual relationship too is adversely affected. We are not bothered about the problems of   others and put our interest above everything. This often leads to conflict of interest. We should not do something which we do not want others to do with me. Suppose someone asks me to help him get a job, or to give a loan of hefty amount without even considering whether it is within my means. Then we may often have to face frustration. Because the expectations which are not rational and are without proper consideration often get rejected and ultimately result in disappointments.

Most of the people are running after money. To them material achievements is everything. They want power. They want high position. They want to be well known. But at what cost? Even when you have already gained these things, your cravings are not over. You want something more. This something more has created an endless struggle within. People are fighting with themselves. They are on constant war with their own self. The question is: why??

Negative thinking is our worst enemy. We keep worrying about the future. This does not help in anyway. It spoils our mental and physical health. It adversely affects our capacity to take on the ups and downs of life. Once we are able to come out of it, we can go much beyond our imagination. There are infinite possibilities. We are here to achieve. But that needs a positive mind.

Problems that we confront in our everyday life is our own creation and we alone can solve them. Making others responsible for our own failures is a human weakness. We assign all good achievements to our own credit and fix responsibilities for our failures on others. That never can bring peace and harmony in our lives. We have to develop the art of acceptance. All good and bad things that happen in course of our lives should not be allowed to dominate us. We cannot control others. We cannot decide about many things that happen in our lives but we can certainly control ourselves and decide how to react. If you can do this, we will be opening the door to perfect peace of mind.

Peace of mind is the greatest asset which we can possess costs nothing but it cannot be bought . It can only be practised.”Ashantasya kuto sukham”?Lord Krishna repeatedly stressed upon the need to renounce attachment but not the world so that one can live in peace with himself and with the world outside. This world is nothing but reflection of our own mind.”Yas munde tas brahmande”that means we see outside only things which are already in our mind. If we constantly think ill about a person, we are bound to treat him accordingly. Naturally, he too would react in the same fashion. Thus, a chain reaction starts. We just keep on reacting. This never gives peace of mind. We have to act and to stop reacting to the developments in order that we are able to live a contended and satisfied life!


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